Research Progress on the Anti-Cancer Molecular Mechanisms of Huaier

Huaier (Trametes robiniophila Murr), a Chinese traditional herb of medicine, has demonstrated promising curative effects in clinical treatment for various tumors. There are documented experiments showing the biological functions of Huaier with its antineoplastic molecular mechanisms: restraining proliferation and metastasis, arresting cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, pyrosis, and autophagy, anti-intratumoral angiogenesis, attenuating characteristics of tumor stem-like cells, interfering with the function of the tumor-related immune system, reversing drug resistance, and enhancing the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, etc.

In addition, studies suggest that non-coding RNA (ncRNA) acts a pivotal part in cancer occurrence and development, and demonstrates that Huaier adjusts the performance of certain lncRNA (long non-coding RNA) and proceeds to affect the microRNA and its target genes, rendering an anti-tumor effect. Huaier also modulates the expression of lncRNA to attenuate the activity of ncRNA-sponged microRNA and then inhibits the expression of downstream target genes. We summarize and illustrate the experimentally confirmed anti-cancer molecular mechanisms of Huaier, to inspire new ideas for researchers in relevant fields.

 

Intensive agriculture activities, industrialization and growing numbers of wastewater treatment plants along river banks collectively contribute to the elevated levels of neurotoxic pollutants in natural water reservoirs across Europe. We established an in vitro bioassay based upon neural stem cells isolated from the subventricular zone of the postnatal mouse to evaluate the neurotoxic potential of raw wastewater, treated sewage effluent, groundwater and drinking water. The toxic potential of water samples was evaluated employing viability, proliferation, differentiation and migration assays.

We found that raw wastewater could reduce the viability and proliferation of neural stem cells, and decreased the neuronal and astrocyte differentiation, neuronal neurite growth, astrocyte growth and cell migration. Treated sewage water also showed inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and migration. Our results indicated that relatively high concentrations of nitrogenous substances, pesticides, mercuric compounds, bisphenol-A, and phthalates, along with some other pollutants in raw wastewater and treated sewage water, might be the reason for the neuroinhibitory effects of these water samples.

 

Development of a Yellow-Seeded Stable Allohexaploid Brassica Through Inter-Generic Somatic Hybridization With a High Degree of Fertility and Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

The Brassica coenospeceis have treasure troves of genes that could be beneficial if introgressed into cultivated Brassicas to combat the current conditions of climate change. Introducing genetic variability through plant speciation with polyploidization is well documented, where ploidy augmentation of inter-generic allohexaploids using somatic hybridization has significantly contributed to genetic base broadening. Sinapis alba is a member of the Brassicaceae family that possesses valuable genes, including genes conferring resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorumAlternaria brassicae, pod shattering, heat, and drought stress.
This work aimed to synthesize stable allohexaploid (AABBSS) Brassica while incorporating the yellow-seed trait and resistance to S. sclerotiorum stem rot. The two fertile and stable allohexaploids were developed by polyethylene glycol mediated protoplast fusions between Brassica juncea and S. alba (SS) and named as JS1 and JS2. These symmetric hybrids were validated using morphological and molecular cytology techniques and were found to be stable over consecutive generations. The complete chromosome constitution of the three genomes was determined through genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic cells probed with S. alba genomic DNA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate.
These two allohexaploids showed 24 hybridization signals demonstrating the presence of complete diploid chromosomes from S. alba and 36 chromosomes from B. juncea. The meiotic pollen mother cell showed 30 bivalent sets of all the 60 chromosomes and none of univalent or trivalent observed during meiosis.
 Research Progress on the Anti-Cancer Molecular Mechanisms of Huaier

The loss of function of HEL, which encodes a cellulose synthase interactive protein, causes helical and vine-like growth of tomato

Helical growth is an economical way for plant to obtain resources. The classic microtubule-microfibril alignment model of Arabidopsis helical growth involves restriction of the appropriate orientation of cellulose microfibrils appropriately in the cell walls. However, the molecular mechanism underlying tomato helical growth remains unknown. Here, we identified a spontaneous tomato helical (hel) mutant with right-handed helical cotyledons and petals but left-handed helical stems and true leaves.
Genetic analysis revealed that the hel phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. Using map-based cloning, we cloned the HEL gene, which encodes a cellulose interacting protein homologous to CSI1 of Arabidopsis. We identified a 27 bp fragment replacement that generated a premature stop codon. Transgenic experiments showed that the helical growth phenotype could be restored by the allele of this gene from wild-type Pyriforme. In contrast, the knockout mutation of HEL in Pyriforme via CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in helical growth. These findings shed light on the molecular control of the helical growth of tomato.
Many features that are appropriate for an ideal tissue engineered biomaterial are found in plant tissues. Hierarchically organized Bambusa vulgaris exhibits structural similarities to native bone, but the degradation of cellulose that is the main component of the plant cell wall is a challenge. In this study, Bamboo stem was subjected to decellularization followed by a chemical oxidation process (treated with sodium periodate) to enhance biocompatibility and biodegradation.

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The crystallinity of oxidised plant scaffolds was reduced, resulting in lower mechanical strength. In contrast, hydrophilicity was enhanced in those scaffolds.

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